Facial genetics: a brief overview
Journal of Social and Political Psychology,Vol. Accepted: Published VoR : E-mail: choyt richmond.
Abstract Understanding the complex manifestations of sexual stigma is crucial in helping to prevent discrimination toward sexual minorities. In this research, we lookng the role of heterosexism within political ideology systems and the process through which these systems promote discrimination by focusing on sexual prejudice.
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Across four studies, we tested the predictions that more conservative political ideologies and greater levels of sexual prejudice will be associated with more negative evaluations of an applicant with a sexual stigma, and that prejudice will mediate the link between ideology and evaluation. We employed an experimental paradigm such that participants were presented nearly identical information in an intern applicant gug context, however, cues to sexual stigma were either present or absent.
Overall, conservative ideology negatively predicted evaluation in the stigma, but not the control, condition and greater levels of sexual prejudice more strongly negatively predicted evaluations in the stigma, relative to control, condition. Finally, whereas ideology indirectly predicted candidate evaluation through prejudice generally, the effect was stronger for the applicant with the sexual stigma.
This research extends the scholarship linking ideology to sexual stigma by examining employment discrimination gky testing the mediating role of prejudice linking ideology to discrimination.
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By examining the role of ideology, it also broadens the research on bias in employment contexts. Understanding the role of both political ideology as well as individual sexual prejudice in discrimination may facilitate efforts to dismantle discrimination.
Keywords: sexual stigma, political ideology, sexual prejudice, discrimination Understanding the complex flr of and contributions to sexual stigma is crucial in helping to prevent discrimination, harassment, and violence toward sexual minorities. In recent years, there has been a rapid and dramatic shift in policies and public opinion regarding sexual minorities in the United States Herek, There has been a growing of laws and policies prohibiting discrimination based masculune sexual orientation across the United States.
Concurrently, Americans have shown increased support for sexual minorities on legal and policy lokking including marriage equality, parenting, and employment discrimination and an increase in positive and accepting attitudes towards sexual minorities Herek, However, these opinion changes and the decreasing moral righteousness associated with discriminatory policies belie the widespread discrimination that sexual minorities still face.
The legitimacy of sexual stigma has been increasingly contested in recent years, but it remains robust in certain institutional and ideological systems.
One such ideology is conservatism. In this research, we examine the contributions of political ideology to discrimination by examining the mediating role of prejudice toward sexual ggl. Sexual Stigma When people possess characteristics that might lead others to consider them deviant, limited, or otherwise undesirable, they are said to carry a stigma. Goffman organized the nature of stigmatizing attributes into three general : blemishes of individual character, abominations of the body, and tribal stigma of race, nation, and religion.
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Sexual stigma is a social phenomenon and, masculune other stigmas, is not only manifest in individuals, but also in institutions Herek, ; this can have important implications for discrimination against sexual minorities. Individual Manifestations of Sexual Stigma: Prejudice and Discrimination At the individual level, sexual minorities are often the target of negative stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination.
In addition to emanating from individual prejudice, discrimination against sexual minorities can stem from ideological manifestations of sexual stigma.
Ideological Manifestations of Sexual Stigma Beyond individuals, sexual stigma also manifests in institutions, such as religious institutions and the law, and structural systems including ideological systems. Importantly, heterosexism can serve as the foundation for the individual manifestations of prejudice and discrimination Herek, a. Like other structural or institutional manifestations of sexual stigma, ideological systems can legitimize the status and power disadvantages associated with sexual minority groups.
Ideologies can provide people a way to justify the masculne and rejection of stigmatized individuals. Justification ideologies are frameworks of beliefs, values, and moral standards through which to view the world Crandall, There are numerous ideologies that can enable people to justify discriminatory treatment ranging from the Protestant work ethic a belief that links hard work with morality and success to social dominance orientations individual preferences for hierarchies amongst social groups; Crandall, These frameworks can enable justification by promoting attributions of responsibility and blame for the stigma or by promoting beliefs in social hierarchies.
Some ideologies encourage both hierarchy beliefs and attributions that serve to justify stigmatization; one such ideology is political ideology. Ideology encompasses both attributional processes and belief systems that can promote the justification of stigma.
Through valuing hierarchies among groups of people as well as masculjne greater internal attributions for individual outcomes, political conservatism can serve to justify stigmatization Crandall, The Current Research Discrimination against sexual minorities and the associated claims of moral righteousness has decreased in the United States Herek, In this research, we aim to elucidate limitations associated with the recent decreased legitimacy of sexual stigma lloking demonstrating the robust legitimacy of heterosexism within conservative political ideology systems.
Moreover, we aim to demonstrate the process through which these ideological systems promote discrimination by focusing on prejudice.
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We examine the critical role of sociocultural looikng of stigma ideology looklng promoting individual sexual stigma prejudice and ultimately discrimination against sexual minorities. In this work, we aim to extend the literature in important ways. In this research, we examine the role of political conservatism and sexual prejudice in predicting discriminatory evaluations of applicants that are presented with a sexual stigma or not.
We test our predictions by employing a modified Goldberg experimental paradigm such that participants were presented nearly identical information in an intern applicant evaluation context, however, cues to sexual stigma were either present or absent. We aled sexual stigma in different ways across studies with the applicant guu for an LGBTQ program, self-identifying as a gay athlete, or both. Across four studies, we test the role of political ideology and sexual prejudice in evaluating an applicant with sexual stigma.
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Data were collected from individuals living in the United States in the summer of Studies 1 through 3 and the spring of Study 4. Specifically, we hypothesize that those who score relatively higher vs.
More specifically, given the work showing that political conservatism predicts prejudice against a range of stigmatized groups, we propose that ideology will directly predict sexual prejudice, however, the link between prejudice and applicant evaluation will depend upon whether the applicant being evaluated has a sexual stigma or not. That is, we propose a second stage and direct effect moderated mediational model such that ideology will predict applicant evaluation indirectly and conditionally through prejudice, moderated by whether the applicant has a sexual stigma or not, controlling for richmone moderation of the direct effect of ideology on evaluation.