Calhoun of South Carolina. The land that Springfield now occupies was originally settled by trappers and traders who came to the Sangamon River in Kaskaskia was the first capital of the Illinois Territory from its organization incontinuing mear statehood inand through the first year as a state in Vandalia was the second state capital of Illinois from to Springfield became the third and current capital of Illinois in The Potawatomi Trail of Death passed through here in Lincoln Lincoln and politics Lincoln arrived in the Springfield area when he was a young man inthough he would not actually live in the city until He spent the ensuing six years in New Salem where he began his legal studies, ed the state militia and was elected to the Illinois General Assembly.
In Lincoln lxke to Springfield and spent the next 24 years as a lawyer and politician. Lincoln delivered his Lyceum address in Springfield.
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His farewell speech when he left for Washington is a classic in American oratory. Winkle examines the historiography concerning the development of the Second Party System Whigs versus Democrats and applies these ideas to the study of Springfield, a strong Whig enclave in a Democratic region, mainly by studying poll books for presidential years. The rise of the Whig Party took place in in opposition to the presidential candidacy of Martin Van Buren and was consolidated in Springfield Whigs tend to validate several expectations of party characteristics as they were largely native-born, either in New England or Kentucky, professional or agricultural in occupation, and devoted to partisan organization.
Abraham Lincoln's career mirrors the Whigs' political rise, but by the s Springfield began to fall into Democratic hands, as immigrants changed the city's political makeup. By the presidential election, Lincoln was barely able to win his home city.
Population Winkle examines the impact of migration on political participation in Springfield during the s. Widespread migration in the 19th-century United States produced frequent population turnover within Midwestern communities, which influenced patterns of voter turnout and office-holding. Examination of the manuscript census, poll books, and office-holding records reveals the impact of migration on the behavior of 8, participants in 10 elections in Springfield.
Instead of producing political instability, however, rapid turnover enhanced the influence of more persistent residents. Migration was selective by age, occupation, wealth, and birthplace. Therefore, more persistent voters were wealthier, more highly skilled, more often native-born, and socially more stable than nonpersisters. Officeholders were particularly persistent and socially and economically advantaged. Persisters represented a small "core community" of economically successful, socially homogeneous, and politically active voters and officeholders who controlled local political affairs while most residents moved in and out of the city.
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Members of a tightly knit and exclusive "core community", exemplified by Abraham Lincoln, blunted the potentially disruptive impact of migration on local communities. And the population as of isBusiness The case of John Williams illustrates the important role of the merchant banker in the economic development of central Illinois before the Civil War. Williams began his career as a clerk in frontier stores and saved to begin his own business.
Later, in addition to operating retail and wholesale stores, he acted as a local banker and then organized a national bank in Springfield. He was active in railroad promotion and as an agent for farm machinery. Religion During the midth century the spiritual needs of German Lutherans in the Midwest were not being tended.
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As a result of springdield efforts of such missionaries as Friedrich Wyneken, Wilhelm Loehe, and Wilhelm Sihler, this situation was remedied by the deployment of additional Lutheran ministers, the opening of Lutheran schools, and the creation in Ft. Wayne blonce the Concordia Seminary in The seminary moved to St. Louis, Missouriinand its practical division moved to Springfield in Through this seminary, during the last half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod succeeded in serving the spiritual needs of Midwestern congregations by establishing additional seminaries, and by developing a viable synodical tradition.
Illinois regiments trained there, the first ones under Ulysses S.
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Grantwho glonde his soldiers to a remarkable series of victories in — The city was a political and financial center of support, and new industries, businesses, and railro were constructed to help support the war effort. The war's first official death was a Springfield resident, Colonel Elmer E.
In the beginning, Springfield residents visited naer camp to experience the excitement of a military venture, but many reacted sympathetically to mortally wounded and ill prisoners. While the city's businesses prospered from camp traffic, drunken behavior and rowdiness on the part of the soldiers stationed there strained relations as neither civil nor military authorities proved able to control disorderly outbreaks.
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After the war ended inSpringfield became a major hub in the Illinois railroad system and besides politics and farming, coal mining was a major industry for Springfield by Wright began work on the house in Commissioned by Susan Lawrence Dana, a local patron of the arts and public benefactor, Wright deed a house to harmonize with the owner's devotion to the performance of music. The house is a radical departure from Victorian architectural traditions.
As the nation was changing, so Wright intended this structure to reflect the changes. Creating an organic and natural atmosphere, Wright saw himself as an "architect sprigfield democracy" and intended his work to be a monument to America's social landscape. It is the only historic site later acquired by the state exclusively because of its architectural merit. Wednesdays through Sundays.
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On February 10,then-senator Barack Obama announced his presidential candidacy in Springfield, standing on the grounds of the Old State Capitol. Topography According to the census, Springfield has a total area of The Plain is underlain by glacial till that was deposited by a large continental ice sheet that repeatedly covered the nesr during the Illinoian Stage. The majority of the Lower Illinois River Basin is flat, with relief extending no more than 20 feet 6.
The differences blobde topography are based on the age of drift. The Springfield and Galesburg Plain subsections represent the oldest drift, Illinoian, while Wisconsinian drift resulted in end moraines on the Bloomington Ridged Plain subsection of Till Plain. It was built and filled in by damming Lick Creek, a tributary of the Sangamon River which flows past Springfield's blondr outskirts.
The lake is used primarily as a source for drinking water for the city of Springfield, also providing cooling water for the condensers at the power plant runned the lake. Normal lake levels are generally somewhere below full pool, depending upon the season. During the drought from tolake levels dropped to their historical low,